Land Ethic Through a Retrospective Lens: Focusing and Refocusing Moral Community
AbstractAldo Leopold proposed in 1949 that the community of moral concern would expand to include the land. Such a vision of the expansion of moral community has continued to find echoes among contemporary thinkers with a variety of perspectives. This paper suggests five foci as a typology for characterizing this expansive conversation about ecotheology and ecological ethics: (1) a localized focus on particular place, (2) a revisioning focus on scripture, (3) a re-centering focus on the putative ‘center’ of value, (4) ecocentrism or a de-centering focus on value within ecological relationship, and (5) an expansive focus on the cosmos. Both human power and human vulnerability within the natural world become salient in this conversation. Ironically, however, even in seeking to determine value in nature, it is human agency that is tacitly empowered to act in accord with that perceived ecological value.
This is an agreement between NTR and the author for the publication of the submitted article in the online journal New Theology Review. By submitting this agreement, the author and the NTR agree as follows:
1) The author grants to the NTR the exclusive right of first publication in the article, as well as the ongoing and perpetual non-exclusive right to reuse and republish the article for any purpose, including, but not limited to, the right to copy, migrate or convert the article, without alteration of the content, to any medium or format to ensure continuous access and preservation. The author agrees that the article may be used and published by the NTR in electronic or printed format and/or in any other medium now in existence or that may be created hereafter.
2) NTR will publish and distribute the article worldwide in the online journal New Theology Review using a Creative Commons “Attribution, Non-Commercial, No Derivative Works” license. The author understands and agrees that this license permits users of the journal to print and/or copy the article for noncommercial purposes. NTR will make all reasonable efforts to ensure that the author’s name remains clearly associated with the article.
3) Except for the rights granted to NTR in this agreement, the author retains ownership, including all other copyrights, in the article and may republish the article in any format and at any time subsequent to publication in New Theology Review. The author agrees, however, to acknowledge in all subsequent publications that the article was first published in NTR.
4) The author represents and warrants that the article is his or her original work and that it either has not been published or submitted for publication in any prior forum, or that it has been substantially revised and updated from a prior version. The author further represents that he or she has the right to grant this license to NTR and that, to the best of the author’s knowledge, the article is neither defamatory of any persons or products nor infringing upon any third party’s copyrights. If the article contains material for which the author does not hold the copyright, the author represents that such material is clearly identified and acknowledge within the text and that such use is either with the permission of the copyright holder or authorized by Title 17 of the United States Code.
5) In the event of any subsequent dispute over the copyrights to material contain in the article, the author agrees to indemnify and hold harmless NTR and its employees and agents for any uses of the article authorized by this agreement.